created by Glenn Tamashiro

Hello and welcome. This site was developed to keep you informed about the various lessons and activities that are held in our Government/Economics and Honors Government/AP Macroeconomics classes.


HGov: Review Judicial System and SCOTUS Case Studies


The U.S. judicial system not only resolves conflicts, but also shapes public policy through the judicial review process. The United States has two separate but related court systems: one federal and one state. The two systems maintain exclusive jurisdiction in some areas but overlap when cases involve both state and federal laws.

State judges are elected or appointed by the governor or legislature. In states using merit selection, judges are appointed and then confirmed by voters in a retention election. Federal judges are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate.

Each state has its own hierarchy of courts. Trial courts of limited and general jurisdiction handle most cases. Intermediate appeals courts and state courts of last resort review cases appealed from the lower courts. The federal judicial system also includes special courts with very specific jurisdictions. Most cases involving federal law and the Constitution are tried in U.S. district courts. Decisions made there can be appealed to higher courts, including the Supreme Court.


Article I Supreme Court Case

  • McCullough v. Maryland

Amendment 1 Supreme Court Case

  • Engel v. Vitale
  • Lemon v. Kurtzman
  • Texas v. Johnson
  • Tinker v. Des Moines
  • Gitlow v. New York

Amendment 2 Supreme Court Case

  • United States v. Miller

Amendment 4 Supreme Court Case

  • Terry v. Ohio
  • Kyllo v. United States
  • Whren v United States

Amendment 5 Supreme Court Case

  • Miranda v. Arizona
  • Malloy v. Hogan
  • Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

Amendment 6 Supreme Court Case

  • Gideon v. Wainwright

Amendment 8 Supreme Court Case

  • Furman v. Georgia
  • Robinson v. California

Amendment 9 Supreme Court Case

  • Griswold v. Connecticut

Amendment 10 Supreme Court Case

  • United States v. Morrison

14th Amendment Supreme Court Case

  • Robinson v. California
  • Malloy v. Hogan
  • Hunt v. Cromartie
  • Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka


Econ: Graphing Changes in Supply Demand Equilibrium


More practice on graphing shifts in supply and demand and explaining the changes in the market as it moves to a new equilibrium when there is a shift in either supply or demand.


HGov: SSA Sick Around America 2

sick around america image

Some states required insurance companies to cover everyone but found that many people waited to buy insurance until they fell ill, causing higher ratio of unhealthy to healthy people in the insurance pool. As a result, insurance companies stopped doing business in those states. That left only five states, New   York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Maine and Vermont, to guarantee everyone insurance. A privilege reflected in premiums that is three times higher on average. Around the world, other developed democracies offer universal health care, requiring insurance companies to cover everyone. People are mandated to buy it; insurance for the poor is subsidized; and governments control prices by setting the cost of everything. But efforts to implement similar policies in the U.S. have proven unsuccessful.


us healthcare reform 2    Across the nation, reaction to the 2010 health care legislation that made its way through the House seemed to echo the bitter division in Washington. While people referred to the legislation as “health care,” “health reform,” “health insurance reform,” and “Obamacare,” the actual title of the bill is something else entirely: the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). Republicans see the new law as a government takeover produced by back room deals and rammed through Congress. Most Democrats hailed it as historic, and President Obama declared that the law will set in motion reforms that generations of Americans have fought for, marched for, and hungered to see. Meanwhile, progressives who had long called for a Medicare for all system were disappointed by the legislation, which builds on the U.S.’s private, employer-based insurance system.  Your paper will examine one of three issues of health care in the United States.


Econ: Change in Supply and Demand

Equilibrium Price

Today we practiced changes in market equilibrium. We began with a review of supply and demand shifters. Then we worked on graphing shifts in supply and demand. A market moves to a new equilibrium when there is a shift in either supply or demand. In the short term, a shortage will occur if quantity demanded exceeds quantity supplied, a surplus will occur if quantity supplied exceeds quantity demanded. Market price and quantity sold adjust, and buyers and sellers change their behavior over time.


HGov: SSA Sick Around America


At its best, American health care can be very good. For Microsoft employee Mark and his wife Melinda, their employee health plan paid for medical bills that totaled between $500,000 and $1 million. But beyond large, high-wage employers like Microsoft, Frontline learns that available, affordable, adequate insurance is becoming hard to find. Small businesses face a very bleak outlook for finding and keeping coverage. Coverage is becoming more expensive and less comprehensive, with high deductibles, co-pays and coverage limits. Outside of employer-based health care plans, matters are even worse. Americans seeking insurance in the individual market must submit to medical underwriting, and if they have a pre-existing condition, they will likely be denied. For those Americans who find health coverage in the private market, there’s no guarantee it will protect them.


Econ: Change in Supply or Demand


A market moves to a new equilibrium when there is a shift in either supply (STORES) or demand (TOESIS) which changes the equilibrium price and quantity.
Demand increases = price increases and quantity increases
Demand decreases = price decreases and quantity decreases
Supply increases = price decreases and quantity increases
Supply decreases = price increases and quantity decreases



HGov: SSA Health Care Reform


The debate regarding health care reform in the United States includes questions of a right to health care, access, fairness, sustainability, quality and amounts spent by government. The mix of public and private health care in the U.S. is the most expensive in the world, with health care costing more per person than in any other nation, and a greater portion of gross domestic product is spent on it than in any other United Nations member state. The issue of health insurance reform in the United States has been the subject of political debate since the early part of the 20th century. Recent reforms remain an active political issue.

President Lyndon Johnson enacted legislation that introduced Medicare, covering both hospital and general medical insurance for senior citizens paid for by a Federal employment tax over the working life of the retiree, and Medicaid permitted the Federal government to partially fund a program for the poor, with the program managed and co-financed by the individual states.

The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA) amended the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) to give some employees the ability to continue health insurance coverage after leaving employment.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) not only protects health insurance coverage for workers and their families when they change or lose their jobs, it also made health insurance companies cover pre-existing conditions. If such condition had been diagnosed before purchasing insurance, insurance companies are required to cover it after patient has one year of continuous coverage. If such condition was already covered on their current policy, new insurance policies due to changing jobs, etc… have to cover the condition immediately.

The State Children’s Health Insurance Program, or SCHIP, was established by the federal government in 1997 to provide health insurance to children in families at or below 200 percent of the federal poverty line.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was enacted, providing for the phased introduction over four years of a comprehensive system of mandated health insurance with reforms designed to eliminate “some of the worst practices of the insurance companies”—pre-existing condition screening and premium loadings, policy cancellations on technicalities when illness seems imminent, annual and lifetime coverage caps. It also sets a minimum ratio of direct health care spending to premium income, and creates price competition bolstered by the creation of three standard insurance coverage levels to enable like-for-like comparisons by consumers, and a web-based health insurance exchange where consumers can compare prices and purchase plans. The system preserves private insurance and private health care providers and provides more subsidies to enable the poor to buy insurance.



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