created by Glenn Tamashiro

Hello and welcome. This site was developed to keep you informed about the various lessons and activities that are held in our Government/Economics and Honors Government/AP Macroeconomics classes.


HGov: Interest Group Poster

You will work to create a poster web site to help others understand the views of your interest group. Underlined headings on the example must appear on your poster web site. You must write a slogan appropriate for your interest group and display it prominently. Create at least three talking points that explain why the issues you represent are important and how you want them handled by elected officials. Add color and other creative touches to make your Web site visually appealing.

Interest Group Website


Econ: Supply

1 Supply-wordcloud


Supply, like demand, is another important concept. Supply is defined as the quantities of output that producers will bring to market at each and every price. Like demand, supply can be presented in the form of a supply schedule, or graphically as a supply curve. Individual producers have their own supply curves, and the market supply curve is the sum of individual supply curves.

The Law of Supply states that more output will be offered for sale at higher prices and less at lower prices. A change in quantity supplied is represented by a movement along the supply curve, whereas a change in supply is represented by a shift of the supply curve to the left or right.

Changes in supply, STORES, are caused by changes in: Subsidies or taxes – government regulations, Technology/productivity, Other conditions: natural disasters or related events, the cost of Resource inputs, producers Expectations, and the Size of the market. Supply elasticity describes how producers will change the quantity they supply in response to a change in price. A supply curve is the graph that shows the relationship between price and quantity supplied. A change in the quantity supplied is a result of a change in price.  A change in supply of a particular item shifts the entire supply curve to the left or right. When a business wants to expand, it has to consider the law of diminishing returns to decide how much expansion will help the business.

1) Read Chapter 5.4-5.5 pp.82-87


HGov: Group System


The interest group system over-represents business interests and fosters policies that serve a group’s interest more than the society’s broader interests. Therefore, although groups are an essential part of the policy process, they also distort that process. The policies that emerge from the group system bring benefits to many of society’s interests and in some instances these benefits also serve the general interest. But when groups can essentially dictate policies, the common good is not served. The majority’s interest is subordinated to minority group interests. In most instances, the minority consists of individuals who already enjoy a substantial share of society’s benefits.

1) Read Chapter 9 pp.300-303


Econ: Graphing Demand

A demand curve shows all the prices and quantities at which consumers are willing and able to purchase a good or service. The law of demand states that consumers will want to buy more at a lower price and less at a higher price.

There is a difference between a change in demand and a change in quantity demanded.

A change in quantity demanded is a movement along the demand curve and can be caused only by a change in the price of the good or service. At a lower price, a larger quantity is demanded. A change in demand is a shift in the curve whereby more or less is demanded at every price. Changes in preferences incomes, expectations, population, or the prices of complementary or substitute goods will cause a change in demand.


HGov: Civic Participation



Civic participation is essential in a democracy. Citizens who get involved in civic and community groups help to strengthen civil society. At the same time, they tend to become more engaged in the political process. Most people fall into one of four broad categories of civic engagement.

Electoral specialists are those whose main engagement is through the election process. People in this group vote, volunteer in political campaigns, and try to persuade others to vote as well.

Civic specialists focus on improving their communities and helping others. They join local civic groups, support nonprofit organizations, and take part in fundraising activities for worthy causes.

Dual activists are made up of people who engage in both electoral and civic activities. They may be found passing out leaflets in a political campaign one day and volunteering in a shelter the next.

The disengaged is made up of people who are not significantly engaged in civic life. They don’t vote or pay attention to civic affairs.

Craig Kielburger set out to change the world as a wide-eyed, 12-year-old full of hope and vigor. Kielburger knows now there are some things you can’t change, but that hasn’t dampened his spirit or his commitment to Free the Children, the charity he founded in his parent’s living room. Kielburger’s charity is now in 45 countries and takes in $30 million per year. It’s the largest organization of children helping children in the world. It all began in the 1990s when he read about a boy in Pakistan who was killed for trying to stop child labor. He knew he had to do something about it. So, he went to Asia, and with the help of activists and government officials, helped shut down sweatshops and brothels manned by children.

Later, he learned that some of the kids he freed were being pulled back into servitude. He found that busting down doors of sweatshops was easy but changing a culture of slavery was hard. “The lowest moment ever was the first time in Southeast Asia, when we met children who we had freed before and then years later, to see that some of those same kids would end up back in some of the same grinding, backbreaking, desperate poverty,” said Kielburger. Instead of giving up, he made a promise he’s kept to this day. “The only thing I could promise them at that point was that I would share their stories with whoever would listen…when you make a promise, you have to fulfill it,” Kielburger said. His determination to expose child poverty has helped him recruit two million volunteers, almost all of whom are under the age of 18. Free the Children builds schools, provides clean water and helps artisans sell their goods in an effort to help people rise out of poverty.


Econ: Demand

1 demand-wordcloud


In a market economy, buyers and sellers set prices. Demand is the amount of something that consumers are willing and able to buy at various prices. Demand does not always stay the same and can be determined by a demand schedule, which shows the various quantities demanded of a particular product at all prices that might prevail in the market at a given time.

The Law of Demand states that people will buy more of a product at a lower price than they will buy at a higher price, if nothing else changes. Real income, possible substitutes, and diminishing marginal utility help explain the inverse relationship between price and quantity demanded. Demand does not always stay the same.

A demand curve is the graph that shows the relationship between the price of an item and the quantity demanded. A change in the quantity demanded is a result of a change in price.

There are a number of factors that will cause demand to either increase or decrease. These factors, TOESIS, are called the determinants of demand: changes in Tastes and preferences, Other related goods: complementary goods, consumer Expectation, changes in Size of population, changes in Income, and Substitute goods. A change in demand for a particular item shifts the entire demand curve to the left or right.

1) Read Chapter 5.1-5.3 pp.75-82


HGov: Outside Lobbying

outside lobbying

Although an interest group may rely solely on inside lobbying, this approach is not likely to be successful unless the group can demonstrate that its concern reflect a vital constituency. Interest groups make use of constituency connections when it is advantageous for them to do so.They engage in outside lobbying, which involves bringing public pressure to bear on policymakers.

One form of outside pressure is grassroots lobbying. The pressure is designed to convince government officials that an interest group’s policy position has popular support. Grassroots lobbying encourages members of the public to contact their elected or appointed officials to ask them to take a certain action. The precise impact of grassroots campaign is difficult to assess. Members of Congress  downplay its importance, but all congressional offices monitor letters, email, and phone calls as a way of tracking constituents’ opinions.

An outside strategy can also include election campaigns. Organized interest groups work to elect their supporters and defeat their opponents. The possibility of electoral opposition from a powerful interest group can keep an officeholder from openly obstructing the group’s goals. The principal way interest groups try to gain influence through elections is by contributing money to a candidates’ campaigns. An interest group’s election contributions are given through its political action committee or PAC.



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