created by Glenn Tamashiro

Hello and welcome. This site was developed to keep you informed about the various lessons and activities that are held in our Government/Economics and Honors Government/AP Macroeconomics classes.

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HGov: Chapter 4 Civil Liberties – Protecting Individual Rights


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The chapter focuses on civil liberties issues. It examines a range of specific individual rights and their evolution over time. These rights include freedom of speech, religion, and privacy. However, these rights are constantly being balanced against competing individual rights and society’s collective interests, making these increasingly complex and important in contemporary American politics. The main points of this chapter are as follows:

  • Freedom of expression is the most basic of democratic rights, but like all rights, it is not unlimited.
  • “Due process of law” refers to legal protections (primarily procedural safeguards) designed to ensure that individual rights are respected by government.
  • Over the course of the nation’s history, Americans’ civil liberties have been broadened in law and more fully protected by the courts. Of special significance has been the Supreme Court’s use of the Fourteenth Amendment to protect individual rights from action by state and local governments.
  • Individual rights are constantly being weighed against the demands of majorities and the collective needs of society. All political institutions are involved in this process, as is public opinion, but the judiciary plays a central role and is the institution that is normally most protective of civil liberties.

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Having read Chapter 4, you should be able to do each of the following:

  1. Explain why issues of constitutional individual rights or civil liberties have become more complex in contemporary times.
  2. Detail the development of selective incorporation as it relates to the Fourteenth Amendment and what it means for individual rights in the states.
  3. Trace the evolution of the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the right of free expression through both the early and modern periods. Important concepts such as prior restraint, libel, and slander should also be understood. Discuss the extension of its guarantees to state governments through the Fourteenth Amendment.
  4. Outline the historical development of the federal judiciary’s application of due process protections.
  5. Review key Supreme Court decisions relating to the right of privacy.
  6. Discuss the significance of the establishment and free exercise clauses in relation to freedom of religion.
  7. Explain how the rights of the accused have been protected through Supreme Court rulings. Detail the protections encountered at various stages of the criminal justice system, from the suspicion phase through appeal.
  8. Describe the changes that the war on terrorism has brought to the protection of individual rights.
  9. Summarize the role of the courts in a free society.

Homework:
Chapters 4 & 5 Quiz I on Friday Sept. 18

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HGov: Chapter 3 Federalism – Forging a Nation


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The chapter focuses on the issue of federalism: its creation through the Constitution, its evolution during the nation’s history, and its current status. The main points presented in the chapter are these:

  • The power of government must be equal to its responsibilities. The Constitution was needed because the nation’s preceding system (under the Articles of Confederation) was too weak to accomplish its expected goals, particularly those of a strong defense and an integrated economy.
  • Federalism—the Constitution’s division of governing authority between two levels, nation and states—was the result of political bargaining. Federalism was not a theoretical principle, but a compromise made necessary in 1787 by the prior existence of the states.
  • Federalism is not a fixed principle for allocating power between the national and state governments, but a principle that has changed over time in response to political needs and partisan ideology. Federalism has passed through several distinct stages in the course of the nation’s history.
  • Contemporary federalism tilts toward national authority, reflecting the increased interdependence of American society.

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Having read Chapter 3, you should be able to do each of the following:

  1. Define federalism and describe the bargaining process at the Philadelphia Convention resulting in its inception.
  2. Specify the difference between enumerated, implied, and reserved powers. Explain the purpose underlying this distribution of power.
  3. Distinguish among the “necessary and proper,” supremacy, and commerce clauses, explaining how their constitutional interpretations have affected the division of powers in American government.
  4. Outline the different stages in the Supreme Court’s interpretation of federalism, referring to its major decisions and their significance.
  5. Describe the causes behind the rise in nationalism, such as the nature of interdependency and the cooperative federalism that has resulted.
  6. Outline the aspects of fiscal federalism, including the types of grants-in-aid and the influence they can bear on behalf of the federal government.
  7. Explain the causes behind the devolution movement of the latter decades of the twentieth century, and describe the recent developments that have brought about an end to the devolution trend.

Homework:
Chapters 2 & 3 Quiz I on Wednesday Sept. 16

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HGov: Chapter 2 Constitutional Democracy – Promoting Liberty and Self Government


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This chapter describes how the principles of self-government and limited government are embodied in the Constitution and explains the tension between them. It also indicates how these principles have been modified in practice in the course of American history. The major ideas include:

  • America during the colonial period developed traditions of limited government and self-government. These traditions were rooted in governing practices, political theory, and cultural values.
  • The Constitution provides for limited government mainly by defining lawful powers and by dividing those powers among competing institutions. The Constitution, with its Bill of Rights, also prohibits government from infringing on individual rights. Judicial review is an additional safeguard.
  • The Constitution in its original form provided for self-government mainly through indirect systems of election of representatives. The framers’ theory of self-government was based on the notion that political power must be separated from immediate popular influences if sound policies are to result.
  • The idea of popular government—in which the majority’s desires have a more direct and immediate impact on governing officials—has gained strength since the nation’s beginning. Originally, the House of Representatives was the only institution subject to direct vote of the people. This mechanism has been extended to other institutions and, through primary elections, even to the nomination of candidates for public office.

Student Writing

Having read Chapter 2, you should be able to do each of the following:

  1. Describe the system of checks and balances on the powers of the three branches of American government, and assess its effectiveness in controlling the abuse of political power.
  2. Explain and analyze the roots of limited government in America.
  3. Compare separation of powers and separated institutions sharing power. Assess why the second, which characterizes the S. system, is the more substantial check on political power.
  4. Explain what is meant by the term judicial review, and assess its significance in a system based on limited government. Be sure to explain the constitutional significance of Marbury v. Madison.
  5. Discuss the distinction the framers made between the terms democracy and republic, and why they considered one preferable over the other.
  6. Describe how provisions for majority rule have changed and increased over time, and what role the Progressive movement played in this evolution.
  7. Summarize the arguments for and against direct democracy, as compared to an indirect, representative government.
  8. Detail the aspects of current American constitutional democracy for which it could be considered more democratic than other systems, and those aspects that make the S. system less democratic than some.

Homework:
Chapters 2 & 3 Quiz I on Wednesday Sept. 16

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HGov: Chapter 1 American Political Culture – Seeking a More Perfect Union


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Contemporary American government is placed in historical perspective. The value of political science in examining the development of American politics since the country’s earliest years is examined briefly, and concepts such as power, pluralism, and constitutionalism that are central to the study of government and politics are also assessed. In addition, the value of political thinking and the ability of political science to help develop political thinking are discussed. Several comparisons between the cultural development of political institutions and financial systems of the United States and Europe are made to help illustrate the different forms of government and economic organization. The main points of this chapter are as follows:

  • The development of political thinking is important for functioning democracies, which rely on the informed choices of citizens for the formation of government. There are powerful barriers to political thinking, such as individual unwillingness to develop it, changing patterns of media consumption, and “spin” by political leaders. Political science is a discipline that can help develop political thinking among students and also lead to a fuller understanding of political phenomena.
  • Politics is the process through which a society settles its conflicts. Those who win in political conflict are said to have power, and those leaders that have gained the legitimacy to use that power have authority. The play of politics in the United States takes place in the context of democratic procedures, constitutionalism, and the free market system. Theorists differ in explaining how power is wielded, using elements of majoritarianism, pluralism, corporate power, and elite rule as explanatory models.
  • Politics in the United States is characterized by a widespread sharing of power through a highly fragmented governing system with extensive checks and balances, a high degree of pluralism, and an extraordinary emphasis on individual rights.

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Having read Chapter 1, you should be able to do each of the following:

  1. Describe the importance of political thinking in a democracy and the current barriers to political thinking among the public.
  2. Describe the discipline of political science and how it can contribute to political thinking.
  3. Explain the nature of politics in the U.S. and how it is a struggle for power among competing groups and interests.
  4. Discuss how the culture of individualism developed in the S. and how it has affected some public issues like taxation or social welfare policy.
  5. Discuss the major rules of American politics: democracy, constitutionalism, and the free market system, and why rules are necessary in politics.
  6. Explain differing theories of political power, including majoritarianism, pluralism, corporate power, and elitism, and how they may undercut the ideals of democracy in the S.
  7. Discuss the nature of the free market system in the S. and how it compares to European and other economic systems.

Homework:
Chapter 1 Quiz I on Monday Sept. 14

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Summer Ending


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Summer is drawing to a close. Get ready for another school year. Go Bruins!

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Current Events: 2016 Democratic Presidential Candidates


Status: Not yet declared. Upon withdrawing in 2008, Biden said that campaign would be his last run for the White House, but speculation over another run remains. Speculation that Biden might run has grown in July, and he will reportedly make a decision by the end of the summer.

Joe Biden

Joe Biden ran for president in 2008, and dropped out after getting only one percent in the Iowa caucuses. Prior to becoming vice president, Biden was a U.S. senator from Delaware for 36 years. He chaired the Senate Foreign Relations Committee for four years and the Senate Judiciary Committee for eight. Biden also ran for president in 1988 but withdrew early on after a plagiarism scandal. Rumors say Biden’s dying son, Beau, asked his father to promise he’d run for president.

Age on Election Day: 73
Education: University of Delaware (History and Political Science), Syracuse University Law School (J.D.)
Family: Married (Jill), four children (Beau [deceased], Robert Hunter, Naomi Christina [deceased], Ashley)
Birthplace: Scranton, Pa.
Current Residence: Washington, D.C.
Religion: Roman Catholic


Lincoln ChafeeLincoln Chafee served one-term as an independent governor of Rhode Island, and opted not to seek re-election when his approval rating fell to 33 percent. Chafee, who ultimately switched to the Democratic Party, had served Rhode Island in the U.S. Senate from 1999 to 2007 as a Republican, but he became an independent after he lost re-election. His father, John Chafee, R-R.I., had been a U.S. senator before him.
Age on Election Day: 63
Education: Brown University (Classics), Montana State University (Horseshoeing)
Family: Married (Stephanie), three children (Louisa, Caleb, Thea)
Birthplace: Providence, R.I.
Current Residence: Warwick, R.I.
Religion: Episcopalian

Hillary ClintonHillary Clinton is the best-known candidate in the race. Voters are familiar with her from her time as secretary of state, 2008 presidential campaign and time in the U.S. Senate. And her husband is obviously pretty famous too. It remains to be seen how her lesser-known controversies will affect her White House bid. Clinton has been accused of corruption for allowing the Clinton Foundation to accept donations from foreign governments and hiding emails from when she was secretary of state.
Age on Election Day: 69
Education: Wellesley College (Political Science), Yale University Law School (J.D.)
Family: Married (Bill), one child (Chelsea)
Birthplace: Chicago, Ill.
Current Residence: Chappaqua, N.Y. or Washington, D.C.
Religion: Methodist

Martin OMalleyMartin O’Malley was the governor of Maryland for eight years until January 2015. Since then he has visited Iowa and New Hampshire to talk about liberal priorities such as same-sex marriage and the minimum wage, calling for a raise to $15 an hour. He has been an outspoken opponent of pending trade agreements. Prior to being governor, O’Malley was the mayor of Baltimore for seven years. His record there has been criticized after the Baltimore riots in April. As governor, O’Malley signed 40 tax hikes into law.
Age on Election Day: 53
Education: Catholic University of America (Political Science), University of Maryland (J.D.)
Family: Married (Katie), four children (Grace, Tara, William, Jack)
Birthplace: Washington, D.C.
Current Residence: Baltimore, Md.
Religion: Roman Catholic

Bernie SandersBernie Sanders has been a U.S. senator from Vermont since 2007, prior to which he served in the House of Representatives for 16 years. He’s now the ranking member of the Senate Budget Committee and chaired the Senate Veterans’ Affairs Committee for two years. Technically, Sanders is an independent and has described himself as a democratic socialist in the past. If he chooses to run, Sanders will likely be the most liberal candidate in the race, having long-championed liberal causes like single-payer healthcare, the expansion of Social Security and opposition to free trade.
Age on Election Day: 75
Education: University of Chicago (Political Science)
Family: Married (Jane), four children (Levi, Heather, Carina, David)
Birthplace: Brooklyn, N.Y.
Current Residence: Burlington, Vt.
Religion: Judaism

Jim WebbJim Webb served just one term in the U.S. Senate, deciding against running for re-election in Virginia in 2012. Webb served in the Vietnam War with the Navy and was briefly Reagan’s secretary of the Navy. An outspoken critic of the Iraq War, he has opposed Obama’s policies on the Middle East as well. As a candidate, Webb will be quick to criticize Clinton and Biden (if he runs) on defense policy.
Age on Election Day: 70
Education: United States Naval Academy (completed), Georgetown University Law Center (J.D.)
Family: Married (Hong), five children (Amy, Jimmy, Sarah, Julia, Georgia), one stepchild (Emily)
Birthplace: St. Joseph, Mo.
Current Residence: Northern Virginia
Religion: Christian

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Current Events: 2016 Republican Presidential Candidates


Jeb Bush

John Ellis Bush (his name “JEB” is actually an acronym) served as governor of Florida from 1999 to 2007, after narrowly missing winning that job in 1994. Bush is known for his moderate stances on immigration and Common Core, although he says the federal government should have no role in the Common Core debate. He’s the brother of former President George W. Bush and the son of former President George H.W. Bush. After his time as governor, he founded the Foundation for Excellence in Education, which is now chaired by former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.
Age on Election Day: 63
Education: University of Texas (Latin American Studies)
Family: Married (Columba), three children (George, Noelle, Jeb)
Birthplace: Midland, Texas
Current Residence: Coral Gables, Fla.
Religion: Roman Catholic (converted from Episcopalian)

Ben CarsonBen Carson is a retired neurosurgeon who rose to political fame after speaking at the National Prayer Breakfast in 2013. Although he has never held elective office, Carson is a published author, serves on the board of multiple corporations, and received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2008 for his work. Carson is an outspoken opponent of Obamacare. He also has a history of controversial comments, including that Obamacare is the “worst thing … since slavery.” Carson briefly led or was tied for the lead in several national polls in late spring 2015.
Age on Election Day: 65
Education: Yale University (Psychology), University of Michigan (M.D.)
Family: Married (Candy), three children (Murray, Benjamin, Rhoeyce)
Birthplace: Detroit, Mich.
Current Residence: West Friendship, Md.
Religion: Seventh-Day Adventist

Chris ChristieChris Christie has been the governor of New Jersey since 2010. Prior to that, he was the U.S. attorney for the District of New Jersey from 2001 to 2008. Although he was cleared from wrongdoing in the infamous “Bridgegate” scandal, Christie’s reputation still suffers from it. Christie is well known for having a moderate-to-conservative record in deep-blue New Jersey and vehemently defending that record against hecklers, including teachers union members. Christie said “the national teachers union” deserves a punch in the face in an August 2015 interview.
Age on Election Day: 54
Education: University of Delaware (Political Science), Seton Hall University (J.D.)
Family: Married (Mary Pat), four children (Andrew, Sarah, Patrick, Bridget)
Birthplace: Newark, N.J.
Current Residence: Mendham, N.J.
Religion: Roman Catholic

Ted CruzTed Cruz became a U.S. senator from Texas in 2013, when a delayed election calendar helped him get his message out and defeat an establishment Republican candidate who outspent him three-to-one. He was a partner at Morgan Lewis law firm and solicitor general for the state of Texas. He has successfully argued cases before the Supreme Court. Cruz was criticized by some and became a hero to others by trying to defund Obamacare during budget negotiations in Fall 2013 that ended in a government shutdown. Cruz was born in Canada, but he was born to an American mother, so he is eligible for the presidency.
Age on Election Day: 45
Education: Princeton University (Public Policy), Harvard Law School (J.D.)
Family: Married (Heidi), two children (Caroline, Catherine)
Birthplace: Calgary, Canada (Cruz’s mother was born in the United States, so he is still eligible for the presidency)
Current Residence: Houston, Texas
Religion: Southern Baptist

Carly FiorinaCarly Fiorina was CEO of Hewlett-Packard from 1999 to 2005. She is the only Republican woman in the race. Fiorina is the chairman of the American Conservative Union Foundation, which perhaps helps her credibility with Tea Partiers. She has never held elective office. She ran for U.S. Senate in California in 2010, losing 52 to 42 percent to the incumbent, Sen. Barbara Boxer. Fiorina has called Hillary Clinton’s trustworthiness into question and made other critical comments, boosting her profile on the campaign trail.
Age on Election Day: 62
Education: Stanford University (Medieval History and Philosophy), UCLA Law School (did not finish), University of Maryland (MBA), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloan School of Management (Master of Science)
Family: Married (Frank), two step-children (Lori Ann [deceased], Traci)
Birthplace: Austin, Texas
Current Residence: Mason Neck, Va.
Religion: Christian

Jim GilmoreJim Gilmore served as governor of Virginia from 1998 to 2002 (term limits prevented another run). Gilmore also ran for president in the 2008 cycle, but withdrew after six months. Instead he ran for the U.S. Senate, losing by 21 points to now-Senator Mark Warner. As governor, Gilmore phased out property taxes on vehicles and cut spending during the early 2000s recession. Gilmore is also a veteran of the U.S. Army and was chairman of the Republican National Committee in 2001.
Age on Election Day: 67
Education: University of Virginia (undergraduate and law school)
Family: Married (Roxane), two children
Birthplace: Richmond, Va.
Current Residence: Alexandria, Va., or Richmond, Va.
Religion: Methodist

Lindsey GrahamLindsey Graham has been a U.S. senator from South Carolina since 2003. He has been in some form of elected office since 1993, also serving in the South Carolina House of Representatives and the U.S. House of Representatives. He is a firm believer in foreign policy interventionism, but his centrist views on environmental policy are rare in the GOP. He is frequently identified as an ally of Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz., and backed McCain’s campaign finance law in 2002.
Age on Election Day: 61
Education: University of South Carolina (Psychology, J.D.)
Family: Unmarried, no children
Birthplace: Central, S.C.
Current Residence: Seneca, S.C.
Religion: Southern Baptist

Mike HuckabeeMike Huckabee served as governor of Arkansas from 1996 to 2007. Following his failed campaign for the GOP presidential nomination in 2008, he hosted the “Huckabee” show on Fox News until early 2015. Huckabee is well-known for his very conservative positions on social and cultural issues, and was an ordained Southern Baptist minister prior to becoming Arkansas’ lieutenant governor. Huckabee is critical of some conservative economic policies, such as reforming Social Security.
Age on Election Day: 61
Education: Ouachita Baptist University (Religion), Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary (did not finish)
Family: Married (Janet), three children (John Mark, David, Sarah)
Birthplace: Hope, Ark.
Current Residence: Santa Rosa Beach, Fla.
Religion: Southern Baptist

Bobby JindalBobby Jindal has been the governor of Louisiana since 2008. Born to immigrants from India, Jindal is one of the few candidates with a non-white ethnic background. Prior to becoming governor, Jindal served in Congress for three years. Unlike other governors who might run for president, there’s little to wonder about Jindal’s national policy positions. He’s already released national policy plans on education, health care, national defense and energy through America Next, his policy shop.
Age on Election Day: 45
Education: Brown University (Biology and Public Policy), Oxford University (MLitt.)
Family: Married (Supriya), three children (Selia, Shaan, Slade)
Birthplace: Baton Rouge, La.
Current Residence: Baton Rouge, La.
Religion: Roman Catholic (converted from Hinduism).

John KasichJohn Kasich has served as the governor of Ohio since 2011. Kasich had an 18-year stay in Congress until he decided against re-election, instead trying a presidential bid that didn’t last beyond the 2000 Iowa Straw Poll. Early in his time as governor, Kasich signed a law strictly limiting collective bargaining rights, but the law was overturned in a referendum. Kasich has been criticized by conservatives for expanding Medicaid in Ohio through Obamacare, and also for his support for Common Core.
Age on Election Day: 64
Education: Ohio State (Political Science)
Family: Married (Karen), two children (Emma, Reese)
Birthplace: McKees Rocks, Pa.
Current Residence: Westerville, Ohio
Religion: Anglican (converted from Catholicism)

George PatakiGeorge Pataki served three terms as governor of New York, ending in 2006. Since then, Pataki has been an environmental lawyer and run his own business development firm focused on clean energy. He also spent some time helping run Revere America, an anti-Obamacare organization. Pataki’s record as governor of deep-blue New York puts him closer toward the moderate part of the conservative spectrum.
Age on Election Day: 71
Education: Yale University (History), Columbia Law School (J.D.)
Family: Married (Libby), four children (Emily, Teddy, Allison, George Owen)
Birthplace: Peekskill, N.Y.
Current Residence: Garrison, N.Y.
Religion: Roman Catholic

Rand PaulRand Paul has been a senator from Kentucky since 2011, after Tea Party support helped him upset an establishment party-favorite Republican in the primary. The son of a former presidential candidate, former Rep. Ron Paul, R-Texas, Paul already has a solid base of libertarian support. He was cheered by conservatives in 2013 for his 13-hour filibuster of now-CIA Director John Brennan’s nomination, motivated by President Obama’s drone strike policy. Paul has campaigned on “trying to kill the tax code,” preferring dramatically simpler and lower taxes.
Age on Election Day: 53
Education: Baylor University (did not finish), Duke University School of Medicine (M.D.)
Family: Married (Kelley), three children (Robert, Duncan, William)
Birthplace: Pittsburgh, Pa.
Current Residence: Bowling Green, Ky.
Religion: Presbyterian (converted from Episcopalian)

Rick PerryRick Perry served as the governor of Texas for 14 years until he decided against running for re-election once again. He will have to overcome the ghost of his failed 2012 campaign, in which he shot up to the top of the field before falling even faster after committing a series of gaffes. Perry built a strong economic record in Texas and has long been a proponent of giving federal powers back to the states. Perry can claim to be more familiar with immigration than most of the other candidates, having governed a state with more than 1,000 miles of Mexican border.
Age on Election Day: 66
Education: Texas A&M University (Animal Science)
Family: Married (Anita), two children (Griffin, Sydney)
Birthplace: Paint Creek, Texas
Current Residence: Austin, Texas
Religion: Methodist or Evangelical

Marco RubioMarco Rubio has been a senator from Florida since 2011, after Tea Party support helped push him past Charlie Crist in a three-way general election. Prior to that, Rubio had a nine-year career in the Florida House of Representatives, two years of which he was speaker of the House. Rubio’s Cuban descent has been a notable influence on his support for conservative immigration reform and on Cuban-American relations, an issue he has criticized Obama heavily on.
Age on Election Day: 45
Education: University of Florida (Political Science), University of Miami School of Law (J.D.)
Family: Married (Jeanette), four children (Amanda Loren, Daniella, Anthony, Dominick)
Birthplace: Miami, Fla.
Current Residence: West Miami, Fla.
Religion: Roman Catholic

Rick SantorumRick Santorum was a U.S. senator from Pennsylvania from 1995 to 2007. He is well-known for his 2012 presidential campaign, when he arguably finished second in the GOP primaries and won the Iowa Caucuses. Santorum has been the CEO of EchoLight Studios since 2013, a film company that produces Christian films. He is most famous for his very conservative positions on social issues, like a ban on most abortions.
Age on Election Day: 58
Education: Penn State University (Political Science), University of Pittsburgh (M.B.A.), Dickinson School of Law (J.D.)
Family: Married (Karen), eight children (Elizabeth, Johnny, Daniel, Gabriel [deceased], Sarah, Peter, Patrick, Bella)
Birthplace: Winchester, Va.
Current Residence: Great Falls, Va., or Dallas, Texas
Religion: Roman Catholic

Donald TrumpDonald Trump is the son of Fred Trump, a wealthy real estate developer. Donald Trump is a successful businessman in his own right. Trump has flirted with running in the past and appeared at multiple Conservative Political Action Conferences. His brash personality and wealth make him one of the most well-known figures in the country. Although he was a Republican before 1999, Trump was a registered Democrat from 2001-2009 and previously supported universal healthcare. He was the host of “The Apprentice,” a reality show on NBC.
Age on Election Day: 70
Education: Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania (Economics)
Family: Married (Ivana [divorced], Marla [divorced], Melania), five children (Donald, Ivanka, Eric, Tiffany, Barron)
Birthplace: New York, N.Y.
Current Residence: New York, N.Y.
Religion: Presbyterian

Scott WalkerScott Walker has been the governor of Wisconsin since 2011. He’s best known for signing Act 10, a law that removed most collective bargaining privileges for public-sector labor unions in 2011. He later signed a right-to-work law for his state in March 2015. Walker beat back a union-funded recall election attempt in 2012 and won re-election in 2014, meaning he’s won three statewide elections in a state Obama carried twice. Walker was the executive of Milwaukee County prior to becoming governor. He’s been criticized for changing his positions on immigration and ethanol subsidies.
Age on Election Day: 49
Education: Marquette University (did not finish)
Family: Married (Tonette), two children (Matt, Alex)
Birthplace: Colorado Springs, Colo.
Current Residence: Maple Bluff, Wis.
Religion: Evangelical Christian

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