created by Glenn Tamashiro

Hello and welcome. This site was developed to keep you informed about the various lessons and activities that are held in our Government/Economics and Honors Government/AP Macroeconomics classes.



HGov: Political Socialization

Political Socialization
The opinions we have on political issues tend to be shaped by political beliefs and values. The formation of these beliefs and values begin early in life and continues through adulthood. This process is called political socialization. To socialize an individual means to teach that person to be a member of society. Political socialization involves learning the values, beliefs, and processes in order to participate in a society. The process of political socialization is important. No democracy could survive if its citizens did not share some fundamental beliefs. Political socialization involves all of the experiences that lead us to view issues the way we do. And those experiences are never the same from one person to the next. There are many agents, or forces that play a part in political socialization.

During the childhood phase of the political socialization process, family and schools are important sources of basic political attitudes, such as beliefs about the parties and the nature of the U.S. political and economic systems. Many of the basic orientations that Americans acquire during childhood remain with them in adulthood, but socialization is a continuing process. Adults’ opinions are affected mostly by prior beliefs, peers, political institutions and leaders, and the mass media. Events themselves are also a significant short-term influence on opinions. Public opinion can be defined as those opinions held by ordinary citizens that they openly express. Public officials have many ways of assessing public opinion.


Econ: Chapter Review

Review: economics, scarcity, resources, factors of production, land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship, decision making, cost-benefit analysis, tradeoffs, opportunity cost, production possibilities frontier, production possibilities curve, increasing opportunity cost, constant opportunity cost


HGov: Seven Articles of the Constitution

The main body of the Constitution consists of seven articles. These seven articles are further divided into sections and clauses. The first three articles establish the three branches of government – legislative, executive, and judicial – and define their powers. These articles lay out the basic structure of the national government. The four remaining articles of the Constitution cover various subjects, including relations among the states, the supremacy of national law, and the amendment process.

The first article sets up Congress as the lawmaking body in government. It describes the two chambers of Congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives, as well as the election, terms, and qualifications of their members. It also sets guidelines for rules and procedures in each chamber. This is the longest article in the Constitution, reflecting the founders’ belief in the importance of the legislature in a representative democracy.

Article II establishes the executive branch. The executive branch is led by the president and vice president. The Constitution describes the election, terms of office, and qualifications of these executive officers. It also defines the powers of the president, which include the power to command the armed forces, to make treaties, and to appoint other executive officials.

Article III creates the Supreme Court, the highest court in the land, while leaving Congress to create the lower courts. It defines the jurisdiction of the federal courts, specifying the types of cases that can be tried. It also guarantees the right to trial by jury in criminal cases and defines the crime of treason.

Article IV concerns relations among the states. It has four sections, which make the following key points: “Full faith and credit.” Each state must honor the laws and court decisions of other states. “Treatment of citizens.” No state may discriminate against the residents of another state. It must treat them as it treats its own residents. States must return suspected criminals to the states in which they are wanted. “New states and territories.” Only Congress can authorize the creation of new states. It also has power over territories and other jurisdictions of the United   States. “Protection of states.” The national government guarantees each state a republican form of government. It also promises to protect states from outside attack and, if requested, to help states put down internal rebellions.

Article V describes the amendment process. The framers understood that it might be necessary to make changes to the Constitution from time to time. Article V spells out the ways such amendments can be proposed and ratified.

Article VI covers several topics. It states that the national government agrees to repay all of the debts that were incurred under the Articles of Confederation. This was critical to ensure support for the new government. It also states that the Constitution is the “supreme Law of the Land.” This section, known as the Supremacy Clause, means that federal law supersedes all state and local laws. When the laws conflict, federal law reigns supreme. In addition, it stipulates that all federal and state officials must take an oath swearing their allegiance to the Constitution. Also, no religious standard can be imposed on any official as a qualification for holding office.

Article VII stipulates that the Constitution would not take effect until ratified by at least nine states. Although the Constitution was signed by the framers on September 17, 1787, ratification did not occur until the following year.

The framers never meant for the Constitution to provide a complete and detailed blueprint for government. In general, the framers made broad statements and left it to political leaders to work out many of the specific details of governing. They also built in an amendment process, in Article V, that would allow for formal changes to the Constitution. They hoped that this flexibility would allow the Constitution and the government to endure.


Econ: Chapter 2 Review

Review: opportunity cost, production possibilities frontier, production possibilities curve, constant opportunity cost, increasing opportunity cost, attainable production levels, inefficient production levels, unattainable production levels, resources, technology, shifters of PPC.


HGov: US Constitution Packet

Read the U. S. Constitution and complete the questions in your worksheet packet. Please make sure all the answers are in your own words. The worksheet packet is a survey of the U.S. Constitution, beginning with the Preamble and continuing on through the Amendments. It is a thorough review of the various provisions of the Constitution, and will serve as a basis of your first test in the semester, in addition to additional reading from the text. You should find a copy of the Constitution (page A-5 in your textbook) and then read through it from beginning to end, entering the required information asked on the study guide. It does go in chronological order. There are a few points that are a bit tricky, so if you get hung up on one or two, do not worry. We will review some of them, but you should be able to understand most of what is written.

Read 6.3 pages 196-205


Econ: Scarcity, Opportunity Cost and Production Possibilities Curve

Scarcity necessitates choice. Consuming or producing more of one commodity or service means consuming or producing less of something else. The opportunity cost of using scarce resources for one commodity or service instead of something else is often represented in graphical form as a production possibilities curve.

The production possibilities curve represents the choices that society faces. Opportunity cost is a fundamental concept in economics and includes not only out-of-pocket costs but also the cost to society of not using the resources to produce an alternative product or service. Alternative forms of the production possibilities curves illustrate different trade-offs.

Read 2.4 & 2.5 pages 26-33


HGov: Chapter Review

Review: government, political power, expertise, coercion, rewards, persuasion, formal authority, mandate of heaven, divine right of kings, social-contract theory, monarchy, dictatorship, theocracy, single-party state, direct democracy, parliamentary democracy, presidential democracy, unitary system, federal system, confederal system, traditional economy, market economy, command economy, mixed economy.

Read Chapter 6.1 & 6.2 pages 183-195