HGov: Chapter 8 Review


  • The Democratic Party started as a party supporting local controls and is now a party supporting more central leadership. The Republican party started as a party supporting national leadership and is now a party emphasizing local control.
  • The parties have also switched areas of dominance geographically. The Democrats used to control the South and rural areas; the Republicans used to control the Northeast and the West Coast. They have flipped these areas.
  • The two-party system has dominated the S. system, with major parties adopting new goals over the years.
  • Political competition in the United Stateshas centered on two parties, a pattern that is explained by the nature of America’s electoral system, political institutions, and political culture. Minor parties exist in the United States but have been unable to compete successfully for governing power. 
  • To win an electoral majority, candidates of the two major parties must appeal to a diverse set of interests. This necessity has normally led them to advocate moderate and somewhat overlapping policies, although this tendency has weakened in recent years.
  • In areas of urban and job controls, party influence has increased dramatically. Voting for only one party has also diminished as a pattern.
  • Party organizations are decentralized and fragmented. The national organization is a loose collection of state organizations, which in turn are loose associations of local organizations. This feature of U.S. parties can be traced to federalism and the nation’s diversity, which have made it difficult for the parties to act as instruments of national power.
  • The ability of America’s party organizations to control nominations and election to office is weak, which in turn strengthens the candidates’ role.
  • Candidate-centered campaigns are based on money and media and utilize the skills of professional consultants. 
  • Financial and grassroots support for parties have increased.
  • The current parties are diverging more and becoming more polarized in issues and support groups.


Econ: Supply and Demand Project

Student Group
Find a partner and do the following: Choose a product of your own making and/or one with which you are familiar that will be affected by the dynamics of a market economy. Make up clearly stated headlines, which reflect each of the shifters / determinants that will cause a shift in demand and show how each will impact on your product. You must draw a separate graph for each factor. The headlines should fully explain the change! Do the same for the shifters / determinants that cause a shift in supply. You must draw a separate graph for each factor.