HGov: Judicial Branch Review



Review: original jurisdiction, appellate jurisdiction, Trial Courts of Limited Jurisdiction, Trial Courts of General Jurisdiction, Intermediate Court of Appeals, State Supreme Court, U.S. District Court, U.S. Court of Appeals, U.S. Supreme Court, judicial appointment, judicial election, merit selection, retention election. senatorial courtesy, judicial review, precedent, rule of four, writ of certiorari, legal brief, amicus curiae brief, oral arguments, judicial conference, majority opinion, dissenting opinion, concurring opinion, judicial restraint, judicial activism

Court Cases: Engle v Vitale, Lemon v Kurtzman, West Virginia Board of Education v Barnette, Brandenburg v Ohio, Texas v Johnson, Near v Minnesota, United States v Miller, Katz v United States, Terry v Ohio, Miranda v Arizona, Gideon v Wainwright, Sheppard v Maxwell, In re Kemmler, Furman v Georgia, Gregg v Georgia, Griswold v Connecticut, United States v Morrison

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HGov: Chapter 14 Review



Review: original jurisdiction, appellate jurisdiction, Trial Courts of Limited Jurisdiction, Trial Courts of General Jurisdiction, Intermediate Court of Appeals, State Supreme Court, U.S. District Court, U.S. Court of Appeals, U.S. Supreme Court, judicial appointment, judicial election, merit selection, retention election. senatorial courtesy, judicial review, precedent, rule of four, writ of certiorari, legal brief, amicus curiae brief, oral arguments, judicial conference, majority opinion, dissenting opinion, concurring opinion, judicial restraint, judicial activism

Econ: Supply Demand and Equilibrium Review


Learning Target: Explain how supply and demand represent economic activity.



Review: Together supply and demand explain how prices are determined and how markets function. The price at which the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied is the equilibrium price.

A market moves to a new equilibrium when there is a shift in either supply (STORES) or demand (TOESIS) which changes the equilibrium price and quantity.
Demand increases = price increases and quantity increases
Demand decreases = price decreases and quantity decreases
Supply increases = price decreases and quantity increases
Supply decreases = price increases and quantity decreases

Price floors and ceilings and how they affect the supply and demand graphs. Price floors and price ceilings are price controls, examples of government intervention in the free market which changes the market equilibrium. They each have reasons for using them, but there are large efficiency losses with both of them.

Arrows-02-june

HGov: Executive Bureaucracy Review



The responsibilities of the modern presidency far exceed any president’s personal capacities. To meet their obligations, presidents have surrounded themselves with large staffs of advisers, policy experts, and managers. These staff members enable the president to extend control over the executive branch while at the same time providing the information necessary for policymaking.

The bureaucracy is an inevitable consequence of complexity and scale. Modern government could not function without a large bureaucracy. Through authority, specialization, and rules, the bureaucracy provides a means of managing thousands of tasks and employees.

Bureaucrats naturally take an “agency point of view,” seeking to promote their agency’s programs and power. They do this through their expert knowledge, support from clientele groups, and backing by Congress or the president.

Although agencies are subject to oversight by the president, Congress, and the judiciary, bureaucrats exercise considerable power in their own right.

Econ: PPF and Circular Flow Review


Learning Target: Describe the “circular flow” of economic activity and the role of producers, consumers, and government.



This circular flow model shows a mixed economy with three participants: households, businesses, and government. A government enters the flow of money and products when it purchases land, labor, and capital from households in the resource market. A government also purchases goods and services from businesses in the product market. Government also combines land, labor, and capital to produce goods and services. In a mixed economy, government collects taxes from both households and businesses. It uses some of this money to pay for the goods and services it buys from businesses. Government may also transfer some money back to households as payment for government benefits or transfer payments.

Arrows-02-june

Econ: Chapter Review


Learning Target: Describe how the characteristics of command, market, traditional, and mixed economies affect jobs and standards of living.


 

 

Chapter Review

 

 

 

economic questions: what, how, for whom; economic systems: traditional economy, command economy, market economy, mixed economy, socialism, communism, capitalism, free enterprise; circular flow: households, businesses, government, resource market, land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship, costs, income, wages, rent, interest, profit, product market, goods and services, consumption, revenue, public goods and services, taxes, transfer payments, subsidies, government spending

Arrows-02-june

HGov: Chapter Review


 

 

Chapter Review

 

voter participation, civic duty, voter apathy, voter alienation, voter registration, suffrage, voter turnout, prospective voting, retrospective voting, political participation, social capital, lobbying, social movements

Misc-05-june